The Full History Of Nigeria PDF Free Download


Nigeria, a country rich in culture, diversity, and history, has a captivating tale to tell. From its ancient civilizations to its colonial past and struggles for independence, Nigeria’s history is a tapestry of events that have shaped the nation we know today. In this comprehensive exploration, we will journey through time to uncover the full history of Nigeria, revealing the pivotal moments and remarkable individuals who have left an indelible mark on this West African nation.

Prehistoric Nigeria

Nigeria’s history dates back to prehistoric times, with evidence of early human settlements found in regions like Iwo Eleru. These ancient peoples engaged in agriculture and developed unique art forms. The Nok culture, known for its terracotta sculptures, thrived in Nigeria around 500 BC to 200 AD.

The Rise of Ancient Kingdoms

Nigeria’s history is intertwined with the rise of powerful kingdoms. Notably, the Kingdom of Nri and the Kingdom of Ife played significant roles in shaping early Nigerian society. These kingdoms had intricate political structures, art, and religious practices.

The Trans-Saharan Trade

During the medieval period, Nigeria became a hub for the trans-Saharan trade, which connected West Africa to North Africa and the Mediterranean. Goods such as gold, ivory, and kola nuts were exchanged for salt, textiles, and other commodities.

European Colonialism

The 15th century marked the arrival of European explorers on the Nigerian coast. Portuguese explorers, including Vasco da Gama, established trade routes and forts. However, it was the British who ultimately colonized Nigeria in the late 19th century, bringing significant changes to the region.

Nigerian Independence

Nigeria’s struggle for independence gained momentum in the 20th century. Remarkable leaders like Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, and Ahmadu Bello played pivotal roles in advocating for self-rule. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria finally gained independence from British colonial rule, becoming a republic three years later.

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Post-Independence Challenges

The post-independence era in Nigeria was marked by challenges, including ethnic tensions, political instability, and economic difficulties. The Biafran War (1967-1970) stands as a grim reminder of these turbulent times.

Return to Democracy

After years of military rule, Nigeria transitioned back to democracy in 1999. Olusegun Obasanjo became the nation’s first democratically elected president in over a decade.

Modern Nigeria

Today, Nigeria stands as Africa’s most populous nation and is known for its vibrant culture, music, and film industry. The country faces contemporary challenges, including corruption, terrorism, and economic inequality. However, Nigeria continues to make strides towards progress and development.


The Full History Of Nigeria is a compelling narrative of resilience, diversity, and determination. From its early civilizations to the challenges of modern times, Nigeria has evolved into a nation that holds a prominent place on the global stage.


Que: What is Nigeria’s most significant historical landmark?
Nigeria’s most significant historical landmark is gaining independence from British colonial rule in 1960.

Que: Who are some notable Nigerian historical figures?
Notable historical figures include Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, and Ahmadu Bello, who played crucial roles in Nigeria’s independence movement.

Que: What impact did colonialism have on Nigeria’s history?
Colonialism significantly influenced Nigeria’s history, shaping its political, economic, and social structures.

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